Enhanced Weathering

Our science: driven by purpose

We’re accelerating nature’s CO2 sequestering processes by using enhanced rock weathering (ERW), bringing co-benefits and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) capability to communities around the world.

From Lab To Field

The effectiveness of enhanced rock weathering has been proven in the lab. Now, we are demonstrating its CO2 removal potential on a global scale through mesocosm and field monitoring sites.

Our Science

What is Enhanced Rock Weathering?

Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a nature-based method of CDR based on a geological process. In the planet’s carbon cycle, this process takes hundreds of thousands of years – we’ve developed an approach that dramatically accelerates it to just decades.

How Does Enhanced Rock Weathering Work?

We take silicate rock, crush it into a fine powder, and spread it on agricultural land. The rock begins weathering straight away, sped up by the increased reactive surface area. Simultaneously, it removes atmospheric CO2 while also enriching the soil with essential nutrients. Because silicate rocks are the most abundant on Earth, ERW has the ability to rapidly scale to permanently remove billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.

Pioneering ERW Standards

UNDO collaborated with Puro.earth, the world’s leading carbon removals registry, to make ERW available as an ICROA-accredited carbon removal technology. But we want to go further. We have been working with independent climate scientists and standards agencies to write the first methodology for ERW to be validated under ISO-14064. This pioneering work is underpinning the latest protocols for the quantification, monitoring and reporting of CO2 removal from ERW projects globally.

Our Labs and Monitoring Sites

Our mobile labs and monitoring sites across Scotland are the first of their kind. In the mobile labs, we are analysing soil and pore water samples. Our monitoring sites in the field range in size from smaller sophisticated mesocosms to large 40-hectare plots and examine different soils and crops across varied climate conditions. From both of these settings, we are gathering critical data to validate our weathering model.

Tracking Removal from Rock to Ocean

We use a suite of complementary measurement techniques that give us a holistic view of the weathering process. From taking a ‘mass balance’ approach to tracking direct chemical products to sampling nearby river systems, we trace weathering from field to ocean. As a result, we get unambiguous data that CO2 is being locked away via ERW.

Soil and Pore Water Analysis

In an effort to draw live data from the soil, we regularly take soil and pore water samples to monitor pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, inorganic carbon, temperature and more. These important metrics demonstrate that weathering (and thus CO2 removal) is taking place. Taking note of the differences between baseline and weathered samples allows us to improve our geochemical model's accuracy.

Mesocosm-Scale Study

Our mesocosms incorporate the complexity of field conditions while allowing us to take a wider range of measurements more often. This bridge between our lab work and full-scale field monitoring sites allows for precise rock application and provides foundational data for our geochemical model.

Our Modelling

We have built a world-class geochemical model that shows us how quickly our rock weathers and how much CO2 we can expect to be locked away over time. This model uses inputs like silicate rock type, climate, soil and atmosphere. It also incorporates the latest real-world, peer-reviewed published data. By improving the model with the best available science, including accurate global climate data, and taking regular field measurements, we can model CO2 removal as we expand and scale our operations around the world.

Understanding our Impact: UNDO's measurement, reporting and verification process

We champion full transparency and rigorous validation of our work, values that drive our approach to MRV – measurement, reporting and verification. We use a breadth of measurement techniques from the lab to the field in this process. Our geochemical model has been extensively peer-reviewed and tested against experimental data to ensure high confidence as to the amount of CO2 we are locking away. 

Our Green Jobs Pathway Programme

Our Green Jobs Pathway generates employment opportunities, particularly in scientific fields, within rural communities. It also aids in facilitating the transition towards a green economy. This program shows the significant positive effects ERW can have in the communities we serve. It also supports the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UNSDG) of ‘No Poverty,’ which is one of seven UNSDGs targeted by our ERW solution.

The Pioneers of Enhanced Rock Weathering

Meet the exceptional team of researchers, geochemists, soil scientists, and more, who are at the forefront of transforming the way we address climate change.

Dr XinRan Liu

Director of Science and Research

A multi-award-winning particle physicist, XinRan leads a world-class science team at UNDO. With over a decade of experience in detector R&D, material assay and delivering large-scale scientific experiments, XinRan’s expertise is pivotal in advancing UNDO's science team and the scientific frontier of the ERW field to combat climate change.

Rob Palmer

Director of Innovation

Rob provides the strategic management and leadership of our combined science, research and innovation program. With over a decade of military leadership experience in combat engineering, he’s comfortable with the fast-paced and rapidly growing engineered carbon dioxide removal sector.

Kirstine Skov

Research Lead

Kirstine works primarily with in-field measurements, detecting weathering proxies and analysing soil sample results. She is a natural geographer with over 10 years of experience in the geophysical monitoring of a pristine Arctic ecosystem (at the Zackenberg Research Station in Northeast Greenland).

Jez Wardman


Jez manages field trials at UNDO, exploring the agronomic benefits of applying crushed silicate rock to agricultural land. With an agronomy background at Yara, he now investigates how ERW improves soil fertility and crop health. His expertise is vital in understanding and promoting the agricultural advantages of ERW.

Dr Will Turner

Data Science Lead

As a Data Analyst, Will supports UNDO's Technology and Science teams playing a key role in operational data systems and geochemical modelling. He earned his Particle Physics PhD at Liverpool University, contributing to groundbreaking muon interaction studies and enhancing detector sensitivity in the LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter experiment. His proficiency in advanced computing techniques empowers the team to conduct comprehensive simulations and assess the potential impact of enhanced rock weathering on a global scale.

Tzara Bierowiec

Scientific Operations Manager

As Scientific Operations Manager at UNDO, Tzara excels in bringing innovative projects to life, and navigating the challenges of an emerging industry. She plays a critical role in ensuring project efficiency. Currently, she's growing her expertise with a Business Sustainability Management course at the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership.

Utku Solpuker

Geochemical Modeller

Utku works as a geochemical modeller at UNDO to improve, calibrate and validate enhanced rock weathering models. He received a PhD in igneous petrology from the University of Cincinnati and had post-doc experiences at the Ohio State University and the University College London. His experiences include analytical chemistry, geochemical and hydrological modelling, mineralogy, and enhanced rock weathering.

Anežka Radkova

Research Lead

Anežka spearheads our enhanced weathering research, partnering with universities on novel projects and refining pore water sampling techniques. Her past role as a Research Geochemist at Queen's University in Canada involved studying mine waste mineralogy and the impact of weathering on toxic elements' mobility, greatly enriching our environmental initiatives.

Matt Healey

Science and Carbon Coordinator

At UNDO Matt works to align UNDO's quantification approach with the industry standards to ensure the future output of high-quality CORCs. Matt holds degrees in both Biology and Sustainable Development. He studied for a year at the University of Hong Kong, where he worked as a researcher on a project assessing the effect of sea temperature rise on intertidal species.

Amy Frew

Field Technician

Amy manages Dumyat's mesocosms and Auchincruive trials, merging field collection with lab analysis. With a degree in Geography and Environmental Science from Dundee, she explored climate change effects on E.coli in Scottish waters. Previously a Geo-Environmental Technician, Amy's expertise strengthens our environmental assessments.

Villa De Toro Sanchez

Machine Learning Engineer

Villa, a Physics graduate from the University of Edinburgh, excels in managing and analysing data. Her work spans field and lab data coordination to ML innovations for data insights. From Jaén to Edinburgh at 17, she's also contributed to positron detector development at Canada's TRIUMF.

Morven Wilkie

Lab Technician

Morven is a Lab Technician at UNDO, conducting analysis for all small plot and split field trials, as well as archiving soil samples. Her role is essential in providing data and results for the team. She recently graduated from the University of Dundee with Geography and Environmental science BSc.

Dr Peter Wade

Science Modelling Lead

Peter led the development of the peer-reviewed one-dimensional reactive transport model (1D-RTM) that UNDO uses with proprietary additions to estimate carbon dioxide removal and mineral weathering in soils over multi-decadal timescales.

Dr Mike Kelland

Research Consultant

Mike Kelland’s PhD was on “How to cool the planet and save coral reefs by 2100: Experimental investigations of enhanced weathering as a geoengineering CO2 removal strategy.” As an acclaimed ERW specialist, Mike collaborates with us as a consultant, providing invaluable input into our field experiment designs and executions.

Dr Phil Renforth

Independent Scientific Advisor

Dr Phil Renforth, an engineer and geochemist, advises UNDO as an Independent Scientific Advisor. As an Associate Professor at Heriot-Watt University, his work on carbon dioxide reaction with minerals is pivotal in climate change mitigation. His leadership in UKRI's Greenhouse Gas Removals Programme and expertise in Enhanced Weathering aligns with UNDO's climate action goals.

Dr David Manning

Independent Scientific Advisor

Professor Manning, an Independent Scientific Advisor for UNDO and Soil Science Professor at Newcastle University focuses on the sustainable use of Earth's resources. His expertise in soil-mineral interactions, carbon capture, and plant nutrients aligns with UNDO's climate initiatives. Manning's extensive experience in geoenergy and soil protection contributes significantly to UNDO's strategies.